Whereas in the top three causes of death in America were influenza, tuberculosis, and gastrointestinal infections, the impact of those illnesses on mortality in was almost nonexistent. The development of a vaccine in the early s safe enough for infants to combat the flu strain Haemophilus influenzae type b resulted from NIH-funded research. NIH-funded researchers are close to the creation of a universal flu vaccine—one that would provide protection from multiple flu strains, as opposed to a specified vaccine for each year.
As antibiotics proved effective at combating tuberculosis during the midth century, strains of the disease began developing resistance to the drugs.
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This development has led NIH to support research to develop new drugs to counteract antibiotic-resistant forms of the disease. And while cancer is the second-leading cause of death in America today, death rates from cancer have fallen significantly, due in part to NIH-supported efforts.
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The economic benefits of NIH research and innovation are manifold: NIH research supports and promotes economic activity in the private sector through the development of new techniques and technology, while also preventing the societal loss of economic activity through the treatment and eradication of life-threatening illnesses.
Moreover, the NBER study found that of the 21 drugs with the highest therapeutic impact on society introduced between and , 14 resulted from key enabling discoveries funded by public research. In FY , roughly 81 percent of the NIH budget funded extramural research through research grants, research training, and research and development contracts.
This funding is awarded through roughly 50, competitive grants and supports more than , researchers in universities and research institutions around the world. The Intramural Research Program, or IRP, comprises all of the in-house research conducted at the 27 institutes and centers that make up NIH and funds a staff of more than 4, postdoctoral fellows and 1, principal investigators.
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The basic research discoveries of the IRP have, in turn, led to applied public and private research that has resulted in tangible benefits in the lives of everyday Americans. The index tracks the changes in prices of the inputs required to conduct biomedical research, including labor, supplies, and equipment. As is the case with inflation generally, in the same way that a dollar does not purchase as many eggs or sticks of butter as it previously would, the purchasing power of biomedical research funding also declines over time.
However, the cost of conducting biomedical research has increased much faster than inflation generally. From —the earliest year for which the BRDPI is available—to , the cost of biomedical research increased 14 times over, whereas overall inflation increased roughly seven-and-a-half times over. As a result of inflation in the biomedical research sector, viewing NIH funding simply through the lens of nominal dollars or relative to the overall budget and gross domestic product, or GDP, distorts the true impact of NIH funding dollars.
In , NIH funding accounted for just 0. Department of the Interior projects, and Department of Energy projects. The decreases in funding were "made possible by agency consolidations and rolling back of government regulations. Congress annually considers several appropriations measures , which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, and homeland security, as well as general government operations. Regular appropriations bills provide most of the funding that is provided in all appropriations measures for a fiscal year, and must be enacted by October 1, the beginning of the fiscal year.
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If regular bills are not enacted by the beginning of the new fiscal year, Congress adopts continuing resolutions to continue funding, generally until regular bills are enacted. Supplemental appropriations bills provide additional appropriations to become available during a fiscal year. Congress has also established an authorization-appropriation process that provides for two separate types of measures—authorization bills and appropriation bills. These measures perform different functions. Authorization bills establish, continue, or modify agencies or programs.
Appropriations measures subsequently provide funding for the agencies and programs authorized. The Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, would make appropriations for energy and water development and related agencies for FY The bill would appropriate funds to the United States Army Corps of Engineers , for: 1 civil functions pertaining to river and harbor, flood and storm damage reduction, shore protection, and aquatic ecosystem restoration including the Mississippi River alluvial valley below Cape Girardeau, Missouri ; 2 the regulatory program pertaining to navigable waters and wetlands ; 3 the formerly utilized sites remedial action program for clean-up of early atomic energy program contamination; 4 flood control and coastal emergencies, including hurricanes and other natural disasters ; and 5 the Office of Assistant Secretary of the Army Civil Works.
The bill would approve expenditures from the Bonneville Power Administration Fund for specified construction activities. The bill would prohibit the use of funds: 1 to conduct closure of adjudicatory functions, technical review, or support activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nevada geologic repository license application; or 2 for actions that irrevocably remove the possibility that Yucca Mountain may be a repository option in the future.
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The bill would change the federal definition of water , defined in the Clean Water Act. Representative Mike Burgess offered an amendment that was adopted that would prohibit the "implementation and enforcement of federal regulations related to refrigerators, freezers and incandescent light bulbs.
Rodney Frelinghuysen R-NJ. The Senate introduced, but did not pass, their own alternative version of the bill S. Department of Commerce is planning for the possibility of sequestration and has identified your award as one that may be affected as a result of the automatic spending reductions.
In this event, the Department may decide not to issue you a continuation award, including not awarding incremental funds on multi-year awards, and may require negotiation of a reduction in the scope of your award. If, as a result of the automatic spending cuts, your award is impacted, you will be contacted by the appropriate Grants Officer with additional details.
topkid.com/964.php The Department may also determine it necessary to stop or suspend work, reduce the scope of work, or partially or completely terminate your contract for convenience. For financial assistance agreements, the Department may decide not to issue a continuation award- including not awarding incremental funds on multi-year awards - and may require negotiation of a reduction in the scope of your award. To the extent that your contract or financial assistance agreement is affected due to these budget cuts, you will be contacted by the appropriate Contracting Officer with additional details.
Dear Colleague Letter March 5, Dear Grantee Letter March 4, Letter to Grantees March 4,